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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jul;56(8):4504-13. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-16712.

Multifocal Pupillography Identifies Changes in Visual Sensitivity According to Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes.

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Eccles Institute for Neuroscience The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
Department of Endocrinology, Canberra Hospital and The Australian National University Medical School, Canbera, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
University of Sydney, NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.



Retinal light sensitivity loss has been shown to occur prior to other signs of retinopathy and may predict the sight-threatening sequelae. A rapid, objective perimetric test could augment diabetes care. We investigated the clinical use of multifocal pupillographic objective perimetry (mfPOP) to identify patients with and without diabetic retinopathy.


Retinopathy severity was determined using the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standard for fundus photography. Pupillary responses were measured from both eyes of 25 adults with none to moderate diabetic retinopathy and 24 age-matched controls, using three mfPOP stimulus variants. Multifocal pupillographic objective perimetry stimulus variants tested 44 regions per eye arranged in a five-ring dartboard layout presented within either the central 30° or 60° of fixation. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were produced from contraction amplitudes and time to peak responses.


Regression analysis revealed that mean amplitude deviations were larger with severity of early retinopathy. On average, the longest delays were measured in patients with no retinopathy. The brightest wide-field stimuli produced the highest area under the ROC curve for differentiating eyes with no retinopathy from nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and from healthy eyes (100 ± 0.0%, mean ± SE). The asymmetry in local delay deviations between eyes tended to produce higher sensitivity and specificity than amplitude deviations.


Asymmetry in local response delays measured by mfPOP may provide useful information regarding the severity of diabetic retinopathy and may have clinical use as a rapid, noninvasive method for identifying functional loss even in the absence of NPDR.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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