Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Aug 4;112(31):9740-4. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1500869112. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

Memory formation and retrieval of neuronal silencing in the auditory cortex.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; h-nomu@umin.ac.jp.
2
Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan;
3
Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Center for Information and Neural Networks, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Abstract

Sensory stimuli not only activate specific populations of cortical neurons but can also silence other populations. However, it remains unclear whether neuronal silencing per se leads to memory formation and behavioral expression. Here we show that mice can report optogenetic inactivation of auditory neuron ensembles by exhibiting fear responses or seeking a reward. Mice receiving pairings of footshock and silencing of a neuronal ensemble exhibited a fear response selectively to the subsequent silencing of the same ensemble. The valence of the neuronal silencing was preserved for at least 30 d and was susceptible to extinction training. When we silenced an ensemble in one side of auditory cortex for conditioning, silencing of an ensemble in another side induced no fear response. We also found that mice can find a reward based on the presence or absence of the silencing. Neuronal silencing was stored as working memory. Taken together, we propose that neuronal silencing without explicit activation in the cerebral cortex is enough to elicit a cognitive behavior.

KEYWORDS:

auditory cortex; fear conditioning; neuronal inhibition; operant conditioning; optogenetics

PMID:
26199415
PMCID:
PMC4534275
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1500869112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center