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Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2016 Feb;44(1):32-45. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12187. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Timing of fluoride intake and dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Services, Marquette University School of Dentistry Milwaukee, WI, USA.
2
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa, College of Dentistry, Iowa City, IA, USA.
3
Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA.
4
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Very few studies have examined the relationship between timing of fluoride intake and development of dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth using period-specific fluoride intake information. This study examined this relationship using longitudinal fluoride intake information from the Iowa Fluoride Study.

METHODS:

Participants' fluoride exposure and intake (birth to 10 years of age) from water, beverages, selected food products, dietary fluoride supplements, and fluoride toothpaste was collected using questionnaires sent to parents at 3- and 4- month intervals from birth to 48 months of age and every 6 months thereafter. Three trained and calibrated examiners used the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) categories to assess 16 late-erupting teeth among 465 study participants. A tooth was defined as having definitive fluorosis if any of the zones on that tooth had an FRI score of 2 or 3. Participants with questionable fluorosis were excluded from analyses. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the importance of fluoride intake during different time periods.

RESULTS:

Most dental fluorosis in the study population was mild, with only four subjects (1%) having severe fluorosis (FRI Score 3). The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 27.8%. Logistic regression analyses showed that fluoride intake from each of the individual years from age 2 to 8 plays an important role in determining the risk of dental fluorosis for most late-erupting permanent teeth. The strongest association for fluorosis on the late-erupting permanent teeth was with fluoride intake during the sixth year of life.

CONCLUSION:

Late-erupting teeth may be susceptible to fluorosis for an extended period from about age 2 to 8. Although not as visually prominent as the maxillary central incisors, some of the late-erupting teeth are esthetically important and this should be taken into consideration when making recommendations about dosing of fluoride intake.

KEYWORDS:

dental fluorosis; fluoride; fluoride intake; late-erupting permanent teeth

PMID:
26198477
PMCID:
PMC4718784
DOI:
10.1111/cdoe.12187
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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