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Int J Dent Hyg. 2016 Aug;14(3):220-5. doi: 10.1111/idh.12165. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Do adolescents who are night owls have a higher risk of dental caries? - a case-control study.

Author information

  • 1Public Dental Health Service, Uppsala County Council, Uppsala, Sweden.
  • 2School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
  • 3The Public Dental Health Service Competence Centre of Northern Norway (TkNN), Tromsø, Norway.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim was to evaluate the association between circadian rhythm and the risk of caries in adolescents, as well as their dietary and toothbrushing habits.

METHODS:

A group of 196 adolescents (15 and 16 years old) were divided into two equal groups based on caries risk (case = high risk; and control = low risk). Before their dental examinations, they were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on circadian rhythm, dietary and oral self-care habits, and demographic variables. The participants were divided into three circadian types: evening types who are alert in the evening and tired in the morning; morning types who are the opposite; and neutral types who are neither particularly alert in the evening nor extremely tired in the morning.

RESULTS:

The most common sleep-cycle group type was neutral (50%). After this came evening types (37%) and finally morning types (13%). Morning and neutral types reported more frequently than evening types that they had breakfast every morning and brushed their teeth twice a day. More evening types were categorized as at high risk of caries. Circadian rhythm, breakfast habits and toothbrushing frequency were associated with a high risk of caries. The predicted probability of being at high risk of caries was almost four times higher for evening types than for morning types (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-10.9).

CONCLUSION:

Adolescents who belonged to the evening circadian rhythm group brushed their teeth more seldom, ate breakfast less regularly and had a higher risk of caries than morning types. A patient's circadian rhythm should be considered when planning oral health education for adolescents with a high risk of caries.

KEYWORDS:

Morningness-eveningness; circadian rhythm; diet habits; oral hygiene

PMID:
26198407
DOI:
10.1111/idh.12165
[PubMed - in process]
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