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Science. 2015 Aug 21;349(6250):aab3884. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3884. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

POPULATION GENETICS. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans.

Raghavan M#1, Steinrücken M#2,3,4, Harris K#5, Schiffels S#6, Rasmussen S#7, DeGiorgio M#8, Albrechtsen A#9, Valdiosera C#1,10, Ávila-Arcos MC#1,11, Malaspinas AS#1, Eriksson A12,13, Moltke I9, Metspalu M14,15, Homburger JR11, Wall J16, Cornejo OE17, Moreno-Mayar JV1, Korneliussen TS1, Pierre T1, Rasmussen M1,11, Campos PF1,18, de Barros Damgaard P1, Allentoft ME1, Lindo J19, Metspalu E14,15, Rodríguez-Varela R20, Mansilla J21, Henrickson C22, Seguin-Orlando A1, Malmström H23, Stafford T Jr1,24, Shringarpure SS11, Moreno-Estrada A11,25, Karmin M14,15, Tambets K14, Bergström A6, Xue Y6, Warmuth V26,27, Friend AD28, Singarayer J29, Valdes P30, Balloux F26, Leboreiro I21, Vera JL31, Rangel-Villalobos H32, Pettener D33, Luiselli D33, Davis LG34, Heyer E35, Zollikofer CPE36, Ponce de León MS36, Smith CI10, Grimes V37,38, Pike KA37, Deal M37, Fuller BT39, Arriaza B40, Standen V41, Luz MF42, Ricaut F43, Guidon N42, Osipova L44,45, Voevoda MI44,46,47, Posukh OL44,45, Balanovsky O48,49, Lavryashina M50, Bogunov Y48, Khusnutdinova E51,52, Gubina M42, Balanovska E49, Fedorova S53,54, Litvinov S14,51, Malyarchuk B55, Derenko M55, Mosher MJ56, Archer D57, Cybulski J58,59,60, Petzelt B61, Mitchell J61, Worl R62, Norman PJ63, Parham P63, Kemp BM17,64, Kivisild T14,65, Tyler-Smith C6, Sandhu MS6,66, Crawford M67, Villems R14,15, Smith DG68, Waters MR69,70,71, Goebel T69, Johnson JR72, Malhi RS19,73, Jakobsson M23, Meltzer DJ1,74, Manica A12, Durbin R6, Bustamante CD11, Song YS2,3,75, Nielsen R75, Willerslev E1.

Author information

1
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
3
Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
4
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
5
Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
6
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.
7
Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 208, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
8
Departments of Biology and Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, 502 Wartik Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
9
The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
10
Department of Archaeology and History, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia.
11
Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Dr. Lane Bldg Room L331, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
12
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
13
Integrative Systems Biology Laboratory, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
14
Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology Group, Tartu 51010, Estonia.
15
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia.
16
Institute for Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
17
School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, PO Box 644236, Heald 429, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA.
18
CIMAR/CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal.
19
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 607 S. Mathews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
20
Centro Mixto, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III de Evolución y Comportamiento Humano, Madrid, Spain.
21
Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Moneda 13, Centro, Cuauhtémoc, 06060 Mexico Mexico City, Mexico.
22
University of Utah, Department of Anthropology, 270 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.
23
Department of Evolutionary Biology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
24
AMS 14C Dating Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
25
Laboratorio Nacional de Genómica para la Biodiversidad (LANGEBIO), CINVESTAV, Irapuato, Guanajuato 36821, Mexico.
26
UCL Genetics Institute, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
27
Evolutionsbiologiskt Centrum, Norbyvägen 18D, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
28
Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge CB2 3EN, UK.
29
Centre for Past Climate Change and Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 243, Reading, UK.
30
School of Geographical Sciences, University Road, Clifton, Bristol BS8 1SS, UK.
31
Escuela Nacional de AntropologÍa e Historia, Periférico Sur y Zapote s/n. Colonia Isidro Fabela, Tlalpan, Isidro Fabela, 14030 Mexico City, Mexico.
32
Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Universidad de Guadalajara, Ocotlán, Mexico.
33
Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
34
Department of Anthropology, Oregon State University, 238 Waldo Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331 USA.
35
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Université Paris 7 Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universités, Unité Eco-Anthropologie et Ethnobiologie (UMR7206), Paris, France.
36
Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.
37
Department of Archaeology, Memorial University, Queen's College, 210 Prince Philip Drive, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1C 5S7, Canada.
38
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig 04103, Germany.
39
Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, Keck CCAMS Group, B321 Croul Hall, Irvine, California, 92697, USA.
40
Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Carsilla 6-D Arica, Chile.
41
Departamento de Antropologia, Universidad de Tarapacá, 18 de Septiembre 2222. Casilla 6-D Arica, Chile.
42
Fundação Museu do Homem Americano, Centro Cultural Sérgio Motta, Campestre, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Brazil.
43
Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Moléculaire et Imagérie de Synthèse UMR-5288, CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 31073 Toulouse, France.
44
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Lavrentyeva 10, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.
45
Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova Str., 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.
46
Institute of Internal Medicine, Siberian Branch of RAS, 175/1 ul. B. Bogatkova, Novosibirsk 630089, Russia.
47
Novosibirsk State University, Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology and Bioinformatics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.
48
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Gubkina 3, 119333 Moscow, Russia.
49
Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moskvorechie 1, 115478 Moscow, Russia.
50
Kemerovo State University, Krasnaya 3, 650000 Kemerovo, Russia.
51
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center of RAS, Prospekt Oktyabrya 71, 450054 Ufa, Russia.
52
Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, Zaki Validi 32, 450076 Ufa, Russia.
53
Department of Molecular Genetics, Yakut Scientific Centre of Complex Medical Problems, Sergelyahskoe Shosse 4, 677010 Yakutsk, Russia.
54
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Natural Sciences, M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, 677000 Yakutsk, Russia.
55
Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences, Portovaya Street 18, Magadan 685000, Russia.
56
Department of Anthropology, Western Washington University, Bellingham Washington 98225, USA.
57
Department of Anthropology, Northwest Community College, 353 Fifth Street, Prince Rupert, British Columbia V8J 3L6, Canada.
58
Canadian Museum of History, 100 Rue Laurier, Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0M8, Canada.
59
University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada.
60
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada.
61
Metlakatla Treaty Office, PO Box 224, Prince Rupert, BC, Canada V8J 3P6.
62
Sealaska Heritage Institute, 105 S. Seward Street, Juneau, Alaska 99801, USA.
63
Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, D100 Fairchild Science Building, Stanford, California 94305-5126, USA.
64
Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman Washington 99163, USA.
65
Division of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Henry Wellcome Building, Fitzwilliam Street, CB2 1QH, Cambridge, UK.
66
Dept of Medicine, University of Cambridge, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.
67
Laboratory of Biological Anthropology, University of Kansas, 1415 Jayhawk Blvd., 622 Fraser Hall, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.
68
Molecular Anthropology Laboratory, 209 Young Hall, Department of Anthropology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA.
69
Center for the Study of the First Americans, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4352, USA.
70
Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4352, USA.
71
Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4352, USA.
72
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, 2559 Puesta del Sol, Santa Barbara, CA 93105, USA.
73
Carle R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, 61801, USA.
74
Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275, USA.
75
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg #3140, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model.

PMID:
26198033
PMCID:
PMC4733658
DOI:
10.1126/science.aab3884
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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