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J Sports Sci. 2016;34(8):713-20. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1069376. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

Author information

a CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana , Universidade de Lisboa , Lisboa , Portugalade de Lisboa.
b Health College of Coimbra, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Research Centre of Mechanics Engineering (CEMUC) , University of Coimbra , Coimbra , Portugal.
c Centro Universitário Metodista , Instituto Porto Alegre , Porto Alegre , Brazil.


The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMG(MAX), respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club.


EMG; Golf; club; lower limb; neuromuscular patterns; swing

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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