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J Proteomics. 2015 Oct 14;128:92-104. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.07.015. Epub 2015 Jul 18.

Cobra venom proteome and glycome determined from individual snakes of Naja atra reveal medically important dynamic range and systematic geographic variation.

Author information

1
National Tsing Hua University, College of Life Sciences, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan; National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan.
2
Chang Gung University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan.
3
Mithra Biotechnology Inc., New Taipei City 221, Taiwan.
4
National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan. Electronic address: sung23@nhri.org.tw.
5
National Tsing Hua University, College of Life Sciences, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan. Electronic address: lswwg@life.nthu.edu.tw.

Abstract

Recent progress in snake venomics has shed much light on the intra-species variation among the toxins from different geographical regions and has provided important information for better snakebite management. Most previous reports on snake venomics were based on venoms pooled from different snakes. In this study, we present the proteomic and glycomic profiles of venoms from individual Naja atra snakes. The results reveal wide dynamic range of three-finger toxins. Systematic classification based on cardiotoxin (CTX-) profiles of A2/A4 and A6, respectively, allowed the identification of two putative subspecies of Taiwan cobra from the eastern and western regions. We also identified four major N-glycan moieties on cobra snake venom metalloproteinase on the bi-antennary glycan core. ELISA showed that these glycoproteins (<3%) could elicit much higher antibody response in antiserum when compared to other high-abundance cobra venom toxins such as small molecular weight CTXs (~60%). By removing these high-molecular weight glycoproteins from the immunogen, we demonstrated better protection than that achieved with conventional crude venom immunization in mice challenged by crude venom. We conclude that both intra-species and inter-individual variations of proteomic and glycomic profiles of snake venomics should be considered to provide better antivenomic approach for snakebite management.

BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE:

Based on the proteomic and glycomic profiles of venoms obtained from individual snakes, we demonstrated a surprisingly wide dynamic range and geographical variation of three-finger toxins in cobra venomics. This provides a reasonable explanation for the variable neutralization effects of antivenom treatment on victims suffering from cobra snakebite and suggests a simple and economic method to produce potent antivenom with better efficacy. Since two major venomic profiles with distinct dynamic ranges were observed for Taiwan cobra venoms isolated from the eastern and western regions, the current venomic profile should be used as a quality control for future production of antivenom in clinical applications.

PMID:
26196238
DOI:
10.1016/j.jprot.2015.07.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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