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Eur J Oral Sci. 2015 Oct;123(5):335-340. doi: 10.1111/eos.12201. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Hypoxia increases the expression of enamel genes and cytokines in an ameloblast-derived cell line.

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Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Department of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, The Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypoxic conditions on the expression of enamel genes and on the secretion of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cytokines, and interleukins by an ameloblast-derived cell line. Murine ameloblast-derived cells (LS-8 cells) were exposed to 1% oxygen for 24 and 48 h and harvested after 1, 2, 3, and 7 d. The effect of culture in hypoxic conditions on the expression of structural enamel matrix genes and on the secretion of cytokines and interleukins, as well as ALP and LDH, into the cell-culture medium was calculated relative to the expression and secretion of these factors by untreated cells (controls) at each time point. Hypoxia increased expression of the structural enamel matrix genes amelogenin (Amelx), ameloblastin (Ambn), and enamelin (Enam), and the enamel protease matrix metalloproteinase-20 (Mmp20). Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (Hif1α), and secretion of several vascularization factors and pro-inflammatory factors, were increased after 24 and 48 h of hypoxia. The ALP activity was reduced after 24 and 48 h of hypoxia, whereas the LDH level in the cell-culture medium was higher after 24 h of hypoxic conditions compared with 48 h. In conclusion, hypoxic exposure may disrupt the controlled fine-tuned expression and processing of enamel genes, and promote the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors.


ameloblast; enamel; hypoxia; molar incisor hypomineralization


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