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Toxins (Basel). 2015 Jul 17;7(7):2639-58. doi: 10.3390/toxins7072639.

Cabinet of Curiosities: Venom Systems and Their Ecological Function in Mammals, with a Focus on Primates.

Author information

1
Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK. eva.rode-2011@brookes.ac.uk.
2
Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK. anekaris@brookes.ac.uk.

Abstract

Venom delivery systems (VDS) are common in the animal kingdom, but rare amongst mammals. New definitions of venom allow us to reconsider its diversity amongst mammals by reviewing the VDS of Chiroptera, Eulipotyphla, Monotremata, and Primates. All orders use modified anterior dentition as the venom delivery apparatus, except Monotremata, which possesses a crural system. The venom gland in most taxa is a modified submaxillary salivary gland. In Primates, the saliva is activated when combined with brachial gland exudate. In Monotremata, the crural spur contains the venom duct. Venom functions include feeding, intraspecific competition, anti-predator defense and parasite defense. Including mammals in discussion of venom evolution could prove vital in our understanding protein functioning in mammals and provide a new avenue for biomedical and therapeutic applications and drug discovery.

KEYWORDS:

Chiroptera; Eulipotyphla; Monotremata; Nycticebus; evolution; primates; venom delivery system

PMID:
26193318
PMCID:
PMC4516934
DOI:
10.3390/toxins7072639
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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