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J Urol. 2016 Jan;195(1):162-7. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.07.079. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Circadian Rhythm of Glomerular Filtration and Solute Handling Related to Nocturnal Enuresis.

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Department of Pediatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:
Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Department of Pediatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.



Although nocturnal polyuria in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis can largely be explained by the decreased nocturnal vasopressin secretion hypothesis, other circadian rhythms in the kidney also seem to have a role. We recently documented an absent day/night rhythm in a subgroup of desmopressin refractory cases. We explore the importance of abnormal circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration and tubular (sodium, potassium) parameters in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis.


In this retrospective study of a tertiary enuresis population we collected data subsequent to a standardized screening (International Children's Continence Society questionnaire), 14-day diary for nocturnal enuresis and diuresis, and 24-hour concentration profile. The study population consisted of 139 children with nocturnal enuresis who were 5 years or older. Children with nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were used as controls.


There was a maintained circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium, osmotic excretion and diuresis rate in children with monosymptomatic and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and there was no difference between the 2 groups. Secondary analysis revealed that in patients with nocturnal polyuria (with monosymptomatic or nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis) circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium and osmotic excretion, and diuresis rate was diminished in contrast to those without nocturnal polyuria (p <0.001).


Circadian rhythm of the kidney does not differ between patients with nonmonosymptomatic and monosymptomatic enuresis. However, the subgroup with enuresis and nocturnal polyuria has a diminished circadian rhythm of nocturnal diuresis, sodium excretion and glomerular filtration in contrast to children without nocturnal polyuria. This observation cannot be explained by the vasopressin theory alone.


enuresis; kidney; kidney concentrating ability; nocturnal enuresis; polyuria

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