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J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2015;50(11):1108-15. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2015.1047647.

Monitoring the concentrations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-inhibiting activities in the surface waters of the Tone Canal and Edo River Basin.

Author information

1
a Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science , Noda-shi , Chiba , Japan.

Abstract

Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals has become a major problem in many countries worldwide. However, little is known about the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water sources in Japan. The objective of this study was to clarify variations in the concentrations of seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and in cyclooxygenase(COX)-inhibiting activities in river water and domestic wastewater collected from the Tone Canal and the Edo River Basin in Japan. Total NSAID concentrations were higher in the Tone Canal than in the Edo River, and the highest concentration was observed at the domestic wastewater inflow point located in the Tone Canal (concentration averages of salicylic acid, ibuprofen, felbinac, naproxen, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, and ketoprofen in wastewater samples were 55.3, 162.9, 39.7, 11.8, 30.8, 259.7, and 48.3 ng L(-1), respectively). Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry showed that wastewater samples collected during cooler seasons contained higher levels of COX-inhibiting activity. COX-inhibiting activities were highly correlated with NSAID concentrations (particularly for ketoprofen and diclofenac); however, other COX inhibitors, such as NSAIDs that were not examined in this study and/or other chemicals with COX-inhibiting activity, could exist in the water samples because the concentrations of NSAIDs obtained from the water samples did not account for the total COX-inhibiting activities observed. Therefore, COX inhibition assays may be helpful for evaluating the aquatic toxicity of COX inhibitors. In this study, we demonstrated that COX inhibitors in surface water may influence aquatic organisms more than was expected based on NSAID concentrations. Thus, further studies examining other COX inhibitors in the aquatic environment are necessary.

KEYWORDS:

Cyclooxygenase; domestic wastewater; gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; river water

PMID:
26191985
DOI:
10.1080/10934529.2015.1047647
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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