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Front Neurol. 2015 Jul 3;6:146. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00146. eCollection 2015.

Magnetic Resonance Techniques Applied to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

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Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla , Puebla , Mexico ; Fundación para el Desarrollo Carlos Sigüenza , Puebla , Mexico.
Departamento de Imagenología, Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez" , Mexico City , Mexico ; Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa , Mexico City , Mexico.
Unidad de Neurología, Hospital Álvarez-Buylla , Mieres , Spain.
Instituto de Investigación Científica, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango , Durango , Mexico.
Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento y Sueño (TMS), Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González , Mexico City , Mexico.


Parkinson's disease (PD) affects at least 10 million people worldwide. It is a neurodegenerative disease, which is currently diagnosed by neurological examination. No neuroimaging investigation or blood biomarker is available to aid diagnosis and prognosis. Most effort toward diagnosis using magnetic resonance (MR) has been focused on the use of structural/anatomical neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, deep brain stimulation, a current strategy for treating PD, is guided by MR imaging (MRI). For clinical prognosis, diagnosis, and follow-up investigations, blood oxygen level-dependent MRI, DTI, spectroscopy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation have been used. These techniques represent the state of the art in the last 5 years. Here, we focus on MR techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson's disease.


MRI; Parkinson’s disease; TMS; diffusion MRI; neuroimaging

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