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Front Neurosci. 2015 Jul 3;9:225. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00225. eCollection 2015.

Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology and Drug Discovery, Department of Integrative Physiology and Pathobiology, Tufts University School of Medicine Boston, MA, USA ; Departments of Internal Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center Boston, MA, USA ; Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center Boston, MA, USA ; Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine Boston, MA, USA.
2
Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology and Drug Discovery, Department of Integrative Physiology and Pathobiology, Tufts University School of Medicine Boston, MA, USA.
3
Second Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon General Hospital, Athens Medical School Athens, Greece.
4
Department of Child Psychiatry, University of Athens Medical School, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital Athens, Greece.

Abstract

Brain "fog" is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain "fog" characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as "minimal cognitive impairment," an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain "fog" may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain "fog" in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain "fog."

KEYWORDS:

brain; cognition; cytokines; fog; histamine; inflammation; luteolin; mast cells

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