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Cell. 2015 Jul 30;162(3):662-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.058. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Wireless Optofluidic Systems for Programmable In Vivo Pharmacology and Optogenetics.

Author information

1
Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
4
Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA; Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
5
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
6
Bio-Medical IT Convergence Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700, Republic of Korea.
7
Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA; State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China.
8
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
9
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.
10
Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China.
11
Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
12
Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.
13
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Electronic address: bruchasm@wustl.edu.
14
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA; Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. Electronic address: jrogers@uiuc.edu.

Abstract

In vivo pharmacology and optogenetics hold tremendous promise for dissection of neural circuits, cellular signaling, and manipulating neurophysiological systems in awake, behaving animals. Existing neural interface technologies, such as metal cannulas connected to external drug supplies for pharmacological infusions and tethered fiber optics for optogenetics, are not ideal for minimally invasive, untethered studies on freely behaving animals. Here, we introduce wireless optofluidic neural probes that combine ultrathin, soft microfluidic drug delivery with cellular-scale inorganic light-emitting diode (μ-ILED) arrays. These probes are orders of magnitude smaller than cannulas and allow wireless, programmed spatiotemporal control of fluid delivery and photostimulation. We demonstrate these devices in freely moving animals to modify gene expression, deliver peptide ligands, and provide concurrent photostimulation with antagonist drug delivery to manipulate mesoaccumbens reward-related behavior. The minimally invasive operation of these probes forecasts utility in other organ systems and species, with potential for broad application in biomedical science, engineering, and medicine.

PMID:
26189679
PMCID:
PMC4525768
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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