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Life Sci. 2015 Sep 15;137:125-32. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.07.014. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Protective effects of flavonoids against microbes and toxins: The cases of hesperidin and hesperetin.

Author information

1
Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.
3
Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
4
Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
5
Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: Soltanif@mums.ac.ir.

Abstract

Many plants produce flavonoids as secondary metabolites. These organic compounds may be involved in the defense against plant-threatening factors, such as microbes and toxins. Certain flavonoids protect their origin source against plant pathogens, but they also exhibit potential healthy properties in human organisms. Hesperidin (Hsd) and its aglycone, hesperetin (Hst), are two flavonoids from the Citrus species that exhibit various biological properties, including antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer effects. Recent studies indicated that Hst and Hsd possess antimicrobial activity. Although the exact mechanisms behind their antimicrobial properties are not fully understood, several mechanisms such as the activation of the host immune system, bacterial membrane disruption, and interference with microbial enzymes, have been proposed. Hsd and Hst may also have protective effects against toxicity induced by various agents. These natural substances may contribute to the protection of cells and tissues through their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. This review discusses the protective activities of Hsd and Hst against microbes and several toxicities induced by oxidants, chemicals, toxins, chemotherapy and radiotherapy agents, which were reported in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the probable mechanisms behind these activities are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial; Flavonoid; Hesperetin; Hesperidin; Toxin

PMID:
26188593
DOI:
10.1016/j.lfs.2015.07.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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