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J Pain Symptom Manage. 2015 Sep;50(3):350-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.03.021. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Implementation of HIV Palliative Care: Interprofessional Education to Improve Patient Outcomes in Resource-Constrained Settings, 2004-2012.

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Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:
George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
State of Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Catonsville, Maryland, USA.
Johns Hopkins Oncology, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
European Health Management Association, Brussels, Belgium.


Palliative care (PC), introduced early in the management of chronic illness, improves patient outcomes. Early integration of a palliative approach for persons with HIV has been documented to be effective in identifying and managing patient-level concerns over the past decade in African settings. The experience of implementing PC in multiple African and other resource-constrained settings (RCSs) emphasizes the need for essential palliative competencies that can be integrated with chronic disease management for patients and their families facing life-limiting illness. This article is an historical description of how basic palliative competencies were observed to be acceptable for health workers providing outpatient HIV care and treatment during eight years of U.S. implementation of "care and support," a term coined to represent PC for persons living with HIV in RCS. The need for team building and interprofessional education is highlighted. The model is currently being tested in one U.S. city and may represent a mechanism for expanding the palliative approach into management of chronic disease. Such competencies may play a role in the development of the patient-centered medical home, a critical component of U.S. health care reform.


HIV/AIDS; interprofessional education; palliative care; patient centered; resource constrained

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