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Environ Int. 2015 Nov;84:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.07.010. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Associations between particulate matter composition and childhood blood pressure--The PIAMA study.

Author information

1
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.
2
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands; Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4001 Basel, Switzerland.
4
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4001 Basel, Switzerland; MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.
5
Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Pediatric Allergology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD, University of Groningen, P.O. Box P 196, 9700 AD Groningen, The Netherlands.
6
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Box 357234, Seattle, WA, USA.
7
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.
8
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: u.gehring@uu.nl.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Childhood blood pressure is an important predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Evidence for an association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure and blood pressure is increasing, but little is known about the relevance of different PM constituents.

OBJECTIVES:

We investigated the association between particulate matter composition and blood pressure at age 12 years.

METHODS:

Annual average concentrations of copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc in particles with diameters of less than 2.5μm (PM2.5) and 10μm (PM10) were estimated by land-use regression modeling for the home addresses of the participants of the prospective PIAMA birth cohort study. Associations between element concentrations and blood pressure measurements performed at age 12 years were investigated by linear regression with and without adjustment for confounders.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for potential confounders we found statistically significant positive associations of diastolic blood pressure with iron, silicon, and potassium in PM10 in children who lived at the same address since birth [mean difference (95% confidence interval) 0.67 (0.02;1.31) mmHg, 0.85 (0.18;1.52) mmHg, and 0.75 (0.09;1.41) mmHg, respectively, per interquartile range increase in exposure]. Also, we found marginally significant (p<0.1) positive associations between iron and silicon in PM2.5 and diastolic blood pressure. Part of the observed effects was found to be attributable to NO2, a marker of exhaust traffic emissions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Exposure to particulate matter constituents, in particular iron may increase blood pressure in children. The possible association with iron may indicate the health relevance of non-exhaust emissions of traffic.

KEYWORDS:

Air pollution; Birth cohort; Cardiovascular; Elemental composition; Epidemiology

PMID:
26186643
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2015.07.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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