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Mol Cell. 2015 Jul 16;59(2):149-61. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.05.035.

Codon Bias as a Means to Fine-Tune Gene Expression.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen, the Netherlands; Institut für Biologie II, Albert Ludwig Universität Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.
2
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen, the Netherlands.
3
Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8114, USA.
4
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: john.vanderoost@wur.nl.

Abstract

The redundancy of the genetic code implies that most amino acids are encoded by multiple synonymous codons. In all domains of life, a biased frequency of synonymous codons is observed at the genome level, in functionally related genes (e.g., in operons), and within single genes. Other codon bias variants include biased codon pairs and codon co-occurrence. Although translation initiation is the key step in protein synthesis, it is generally accepted that codon bias contributes to translation efficiency by tuning the elongation rate of the process. Moreover, codon bias plays an important role in controlling a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from differential protein production to protein folding. Here we review currently known types of codon bias and how they may influence translation. We discuss how understanding the principles of codon bias and translation can contribute to improved protein production and developments in synthetic biology.

PMID:
26186290
PMCID:
PMC4794256
DOI:
10.1016/j.molcel.2015.05.035
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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