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Tob Induc Dis. 2015 Jul 17;13(1):17. doi: 10.1186/s12971-015-0042-y. eCollection 2015.

Prevalence of smoking in adults with chronic pain.

Author information

1
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905 USA.
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55902 USA.
3
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Cigarette smoking is common among adults with chronic pain. The primary objective of this study was to determine the period prevalence of smoking in patients with chronic pain. A secondary objective was to determine the prevalence of smoking among patients with commonly occurring pain diagnoses including fibromyalgia, low back pain, and headache.

METHODS:

This population study included 5350 patients (1256 smokers, 4094 nonsmokers) admitted to the Mayo Comprehensive Pain Rehabilitation Center from January 1998 through December 2012. Smoking status was determined using a self-report questionnaire.

RESULTS:

During the 15 year study period, the overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5 % (95 % CI 22.4 - 24.6). The prevalence of smoking in 2000, 2005, and 2010 was 24.2, 25.7, and 28.3 % respectively. The overall prevalence of smoking in patients with fibromyalgia, low back pain, and headache was 25.2 % (95 % CI 22.8 - 28.3), 22.8 % (95 % CI 21.3 - 25.9), and 21.2 % (95 % CI 17.9 - 24.7), respectively. In a multiple variable logistic model adjusted for age and sex, opioid use was significantly associated with status as a current smoker.

CONCLUSION:

The prevalence of smoking in patients with chronic pain has not declined when compared to the general population. The higher prevalence of smoking was consistently observed in commonly occurring pain diagnoses including fibromyalgia, back pain, and headache. Further research is needed to identify the potential factors that contribute to the high prevalence of smoking in this patient population.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic headache; Chronic pain; Fibromyalgia; Low back pain; Prevalence; Smoking

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