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Diabetes. 2015 Nov;64(11):3680-9. doi: 10.2337/db15-0382. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Energy Expenditure Responses to Fasting and Overfeeding Identify Phenotypes Associated With Weight Change.

Author information

1
Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ.
2
Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ Obesity Research Center, Endocrinology Unit, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy paolo.piaggi@gmail.com piaggip@mail.nih.gov.
3
Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA.

Abstract

Because it is unknown whether 24-h energy expenditure (EE) responses to dietary extremes will identify phenotypes associated with weight regulation, the aim of this study was to determine whether such responses to fasting or overfeeding are associated with future weight change. The 24-h EE during energy balance, fasting, and four different overfeeding diets with 200% energy requirements was measured in a metabolic chamber in 37 subjects with normal glucose regulation while they resided on our clinical research unit. Diets were given for 24 h each and included the following: (1) low protein (3%), (2) standard (50% carbohydrate, 20% protein), (3) high fat (60%), and (4) high carbohydrate (75%). Participants returned for follow-up 6 months after the initial measures. The decrease in 24-h EE during fasting and the increase with overfeeding were correlated. A larger reduction in EE during fasting, a smaller EE response to low-protein overfeeding, and a larger response to high-carbohydrate overfeeding all correlated with weight gain. The association of the fasting EE response with weight change was not independent from that of low protein in a multivariate model. We identified the following two independent propensities associated with weight gain: a predilection for conserving energy during caloric and protein deprivation and a profligate response to large amounts of carbohydrates.

PMID:
26185280
PMCID:
PMC4613969
DOI:
10.2337/db15-0382
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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