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Nat Rev Genet. 2015 Aug;16(8):472-82. doi: 10.1038/nrg3962.

Horizontal gene transfer: building the web of life.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, 91 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3125, USA.
2
Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858, USA.
3
1] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, 91 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3125, USA. [2] Institute for Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Connecticut 06269-3125, USA.

Abstract

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the sharing of genetic material between organisms that are not in a parent-offspring relationship. HGT is a widely recognized mechanism for adaptation in bacteria and archaea. Microbial antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity are often associated with HGT, but the scope of HGT extends far beyond disease-causing organisms. In this Review, we describe how HGT has shaped the web of life using examples of HGT among prokaryotes, between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and even between multicellular eukaryotes. We discuss replacement and additive HGT, the proposed mechanisms of HGT, selective forces that influence HGT, and the evolutionary impact of HGT on ancestral populations and existing populations such as the human microbiome.

PMID:
26184597
DOI:
10.1038/nrg3962
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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