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Nutrients. 2015 Jul 8;7(7):5532-9. doi: 10.3390/nu7075235.

Gluten Psychosis: Confirmation of a New Clinical Entity.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95124 Catania, Italy. elenalionetti@inwind.it.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95124 Catania, Italy. leonardi@unict.it.
3
Department of Pediatrics, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95124 Catania, Italy. franzo.chiara@gmail.com.
4
Pediatric Neuro-Psychiatric Unit, G. Gaslini Institute, Via Gerolamo Gaslini 5, 16147 Genova, Italy. margheritamancardi@ospedale-gaslini.ge.it.
5
Department of Pediatrics, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95124 Catania, Italy. m.ruggieri@unict.it.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Via Corridoni, 11, 60123 Ancona, Italy. c.catassi@univpm.it.
7
The Division of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition and Center for Celiac Research, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. c.catassi@univpm.it.

Abstract

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients with symptoms that respond to removal of gluten from the diet, after celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded. NCGS has been related to neuro-psychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and depression. A singular report of NCGS presenting with hallucinations has been described in an adult patient. We report a pediatric case of a psychotic disorder clearly related to NCGS and investigate the causes by a review of literature. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric manifestations of NCGS is unclear. It has been hypothesized that: (a) a "leaky gut" allows some gluten peptides to cross the intestinal membrane and the blood brain barrier, affecting the endogenous opiate system and neurotransmission; or (b) gluten peptides may set up an innate immune response in the brain similar to that described in the gut mucosa, causing exposure from neuronal cells of a transglutaminase primarily expressed in the brain. The present case-report confirms that psychosis may be a manifestation of NCGS, and may also involve children; the diagnosis is difficult with many cases remaining undiagnosed. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to establish the real role of gluten as a triggering factor in neuro-psychiatric disorders.

KEYWORDS:

gluten; hallucinations; non celiac gluten sensitivity; psycosis

PMID:
26184290
PMCID:
PMC4517012
DOI:
10.3390/nu7075235
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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