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JAMA Oncol. 2015 Jul;1(4):505-27. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0735.

The Global Burden of Cancer 2013.

Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration, Fitzmaurice C1, Dicker D2, Pain A2, Hamavid H2, Moradi-Lakeh M3, MacIntyre MF2, Allen C2, Hansen G2, Woodbrook R2, Wolfe C4, Hamadeh RR5, Moore A6, Werdecker A7, Gessner BD8, Te Ao B9, McMahon B10, Karimkhani C11, Yu C12, Cooke GS13, Schwebel DC14, Carpenter DO15, Pereira DM16, Nash D17, Kazi DS18, De Leo D19, Plass D20, Ukwaja KN21, Thurston GD22, Yun Jin K23, Simard EP24, Mills E25, Park EK26, Catalá-López F27, deVeber G28, Gotay C29, Khan G30, Hosgood HD 3rd31, Santos IS32, Leasher JL33, Singh J34, Leigh J35, Jonas JB36, Sanabria J37, Beardsley J38, Jacobsen KH39, Takahashi K40, Franklin RC41, Ronfani L42, Montico M42, Naldi L43, Tonelli M44, Geleijnse J45, Petzold M46, Shrime MG47, Younis M48, Yonemoto N49, Breitborde N50, Yip P51, Pourmalek F52, Lotufo PA32, Esteghamati A53, Hankey GJ54, Ali R55, Lunevicius R56, Malekzadeh R57, Dellavalle R58, Weintraub R59, Lucas R60, Hay R61, Rojas-Rueda D62, Westerman R63, Sepanlou SG64, Nolte S65, Patten S66, Weichenthal S67, Abera SF68, Fereshtehnejad SM69, Shiue I70, Driscoll T71, Vasankari T72, Alsharif U73, Rahimi-Movaghar V74, Vlassov VV75, Marcenes WS76, Mekonnen W77, Melaku YA78, Yano Y79, Artaman A80, Campos I47, MacLachlan J81, Mueller U82, Kim D83, Trillini M84, Eshrati B85, Williams HC86, Shibuya K87, Dandona R88, Murthy K88, Cowie B81, Amare AT89, Antonio CA90, Castañeda-Orjuela C91, van Gool CH92, Violante F93, Oh IH94, Deribe K95, Soreide K96, Knibbs L97, Kereselidze M98, Green M99, Cardenas R100, Roy N101, Tillmann T102, Li Y103, Krueger H29, Monasta L42, Dey S104, Sheikhbahaei S53, Hafezi-Nejad N53, Kumar GA88, Sreeramareddy CT105, Dandona L106, Wang H2, Vollset SE107, Mokdad A2, Salomon JA47, Lozano R108, Vos T2, Forouzanfar M2, Lopez A109, Murray C2, Naghavi M2.

Author information

1
Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle2Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.
2
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.
3
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle3Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4
King's College London, London, England.
5
Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain.
6
University of North Texas, Denton.
7
Institute of Medical Sociology and Social Medicine, Marburg, Germany.
8
Agence de Medecine Preventive, Paris, France.
9
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Psychosocial Studies, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
10
Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska.
11
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York.
12
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
13
Imperial College London, London, England.
14
Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
15
Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, Rensselaer, New York.
16
Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, University do Porto, REQUIMTE/LAQV, Porto, Portugal.
17
School of Public Health, Hunter College Campus, City University of New York, New York.
18
University of California, San Francisco.
19
Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
20
Federal Environment Agency Section on Exposure Assessment and Environmental Health Indicators, Berlin, Germany.
21
Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
22
Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York.
23
Faculty of Chinese Medicine, Southern University College, Johor, Malaysia.
24
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
25
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
26
Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, South Korea.
27
Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance, Spanish Medicines and Healthcare Products Agency (AEMPS), Ministry of Health, Madrid, Spain.
28
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
29
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
30
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
31
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York.
32
Centre for Clinical and Epidemiological Research, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
33
Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
34
Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
35
University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
36
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
37
Department of Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio38Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Chicago Medical School at Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Rosalind Franklin University, Chicago, Illinois.
38
Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
39
Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.
40
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
41
College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.
42
Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy.
43
Azienda Ospedaliera papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.
44
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
45
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
46
Centre for Applied Biostatistics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden48School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
47
Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.
48
Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi.
49
National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodira, Japan.
50
University of Arizona, Tucson.
51
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
52
Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
53
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
54
School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Perth, Australia.
55
Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, England.
56
Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, England.
57
Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
58
Veterans Affairs Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver61Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver.
59
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia63Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
60
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
61
International Foundation for Dermatology, London, England.
62
Centre of Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain.
63
University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
64
Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
65
Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
66
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
67
Air Health Science Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
68
College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
69
Department of Neurobiology Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
70
Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, England75University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
71
Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
72
UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
73
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
74
Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
75
National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
76
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, England.
77
School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
78
College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
79
Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.
80
Windsor, Ontario, Canada.
81
Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL), The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, WHO Collaborating Centre for Viral Hepatitis, Melbourne, Australia.
82
Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
83
Department of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts.
84
Mario Negri Institute for pharmacological Research, Ranica, Italy.
85
Arak University of Medical Sciences and Health Affairs, Arak, Iran.
86
University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England.
87
University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
88
Public Health Foundation of India, National Capital Region, India.
89
Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
90
University of the Philippines Manila, College of Public Health, Manila, Philippines.
91
Colombian National Health Observatory Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogota, Colombia.
92
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
93
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
94
Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.
95
School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia100Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, England.
96
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway102University of Bergen, Stavanger, Norway.
97
Department of Clinical Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
98
National Centre for Diseases Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia.
99
University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England.
100
Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico City, Mexico.
101
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Mumbai, India.
102
University College London, London, England.
103
Genentech Inc, San Francisco, California.
104
Indian Institute of Public Health, National Capital Region, India.
105
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Selangor, Malaysia.
106
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle93Public Health Foundation of India, National Capital Region, India.
107
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway113Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.
108
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle115National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
109
School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Erratum in

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies.

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013.

EVIDENCE REVIEW:

The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs.

FINDINGS:

In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16 vs 7), esophageal cancer (ASIR, 9 vs 4; ASDR, 9 vs 4), cervical cancer (ASIR, 8 vs 5; ASDR, 4 vs 2), lip and oral cavity cancer (ASIR, 7 vs 6; ASDR, 2 vs 2), and nasopharyngeal cancer (ASIR, 1.5 vs 0.4; ASDR, 1.2 vs 0.3). Between 1990 and 2013, ASIRs for all cancers combined (except nonmelanoma skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma) increased by more than 10% in 113 countries and decreased by more than 10% in 12 of 188 countries.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Cancer poses a major threat to public health worldwide, and incidence rates have increased in most countries since 1990. The trend is a particular threat to developing nations with health systems that are ill-equipped to deal with complex and expensive cancer treatments. The annual update on the Global Burden of Cancer will provide all stakeholders with timely estimates to guide policy efforts in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and palliation.

PMID:
26181261
PMCID:
PMC4500822
DOI:
10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0735
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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