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Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Oct;82:349-358. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2015.07.001. Epub 2015 Jul 12.

Dimethyl fumarate confers neuroprotection by casein kinase 2 phosphorylation of Nrf2 in murine intracerebral hemorrhage.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Benin, Nigeria.
2
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
3
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, USA.
4
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Benin, Nigeria.
5
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
6
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, USA. Electronic address: jtang@llu.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Edema formation, inflammation and increased blood-brain barrier permeability contribute to poor outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study examined the therapeutic effect of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a fumaric acid ester that activates nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2 heterodimerization effector protein musculo-aponeurotic fibrosarcoma-G (MAFG) in a murine ICH model.

METHODS:

Male CD-1 mice (n=176) were subjected to intrastriatal infusion of bacterial collagenase (n=126), autologous blood (n=18) or sham surgery (n=32). Four (4) animals not subjected to ICH (naive) were also included in the study. After ICH, animals either received vehicle, dimethyl fumarate (10 mg or 100 mg/kg) or casein kinase 2 inhibitor (E)-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid (TBCA). Thirty-two mice also received scrambled siRNA or MAFG siRNA 24h before ICH. Brain water content and neurological function were evaluated.

RESULTS:

Dimethyl fumarate reduced Evans blue dye extravasation, decreased brain water content, and improved neurological deficits at 24 and 72 h after ICH. Casein kinase 2 inhibitor TBCA and MAFG siRNA prevented the effect of dimethyl fumarate on brain edema and neurological function. After ICH, ICAM-1 levels increased and casein kinase 2 levels decreased. Dimethyl fumarate reduced ICAM-1 but enhanced casein kinase 2 levels. Again, casein kinase 2 inhibitor TBCA and MAFG siRNA abolished the effect of dimethyl fumarate on ICAM-1 and casein kinase 2. Dimethyl fumarate preserved pNrf2 and MAFG expression in the nuclear lysate after ICH and the effect of dimethyl fumarate was abolished by casein kinase 2 inhibitor TBCA and MAFG siRNA. Dimethyl fumarate reduced microglia activation in peri-hematoma areas after ICH. The protective effect of dimethyl fumarate on brain edema and neurological function was also observed in a blood injection mouse model.

CONCLUSION:

Dimethyl fumarate ameliorated inflammation, reduced blood-brain barrier permeability, and improved neurological outcomes by casein kinase 2 and Nrf2 signaling pathways after experimental ICH in mice.

KEYWORDS:

Casein kinase 2; Dimethyl fumarate; Evans Blue extravasation; Inflammation; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Musculo-aponeurotic fibrosarcoma-G; Phosphorylated nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)

PMID:
26176793
PMCID:
PMC4640980
DOI:
10.1016/j.nbd.2015.07.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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