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Virus Genes. 2015 Oct;51(2):198-208. doi: 10.1007/s11262-015-1224-7. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains.

Author information

1
Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA.
2
Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Graduate Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.
3
Immunobiology Graduate Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.
4
Translational Medicine & Research Program, National Marine Mammal Foundation, San Diego, CA, USA.
5
Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
6
Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA. randy.sacco@ars.usda.gov.
7
Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Graduate Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA. randy.sacco@ars.usda.gov.
8
Immunobiology Graduate Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA. randy.sacco@ars.usda.gov.

Abstract

Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but also in many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100 % of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by 5 years of age. Similarly, in cattle, PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. A novel dolphin PIV-3 (TtPIV-1) was described by Nollens et al. in 2008 from a dolphin that was diagnosed with an unknown respiratory illness. At that time, TtPIV-1 was found to be most similar to, but distinct from, bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3). In the present study, similar viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8) production were seen between BPIV-3 and TtPIV-1 in BEAS-2B, MDBK, and Vero cell lines. Initial nomenclature of TtPIV-1 was based on partial sequence of the fusion and RNA polymerase genes. Based on the similarities we saw with the in vitro work, it was important to examine the TtPIV-1 genome in more detail. Full genome sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six viral genes of TtPIV-1 clustered within the recently described BPIV-3 genotype B strains, and it is proposed that TtPIV-1 be re-classified with BPIV-3 genotype B strains.

KEYWORDS:

Epithelial cells; Growth kinetics; Parainfluenza virus; Phylogeny; Pro-inflammatory cytokines; Real-time PCR

PMID:
26174699
DOI:
10.1007/s11262-015-1224-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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