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J Physiol. 2015 Sep 1;593(17):3973-89. doi: 10.1113/JP270788.

KATP channels in the nodose ganglia mediate the orexigenic actions of ghrelin.

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1
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

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Abstract

Ghrelin, a hunger signalling peptide derived from the peripheral tissues, overcomes the satiety signals evoked by anorexigenic molecules, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin, to stimulate feeding. Using in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological techniques, we show that ghrelin hyperpolarizes neurons and inhibits currents evoked by leptin and CCK-8. Administering a KATP channel antagonist or silencing Kir6.2, a major subunit of the KATP channel, abolished ghrelin inhibition. The inhibitory actions of ghrelin were also abolished by treating the vagal ganglia neurons with pertussis toxin, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) small interfering RNA. Feeding experiments showed that silencing Kir6.2 in the vagal ganglia abolished the orexigenic actions of ghrelin. These data indicate that ghrelin modulates vagal ganglia neuron excitability by activating KATP conductance via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtype 1a-Gαi -PI3K-Erk1/2-KATP pathway. This provides a mechanism to explain the actions of ghrelin with respect to overcoming anorexigenic signals that act via the vagal afferent pathways. Ghrelin is the only known hunger signal derived from the peripheral tissues. Ghrelin overcomes the satiety signals evoked by anorexigenic molecules, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin, to stimulate feeding. The mechanisms by which ghrelin reduces the sensory signals evoked by anorexigenic hormones, which act via the vagus nerve to stimulate feeding, are unknown. Patch clamp recordings of isolated rat vagal neurons show that ghrelin hyperpolarizes neurons by activating K(+) conductance. Administering a KATP channel antagonist or silencing Kir6.2, a major subunit of the KATP channel, abolished ghrelin inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Patch clamp studies show that ghrelin inhibits currents evoked by leptin and CCK-8, which operate through independent ionic channels. The inhibitory actions of ghrelin were abolished by treating the vagal ganglia neurons with pertussis toxin, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) small interfering RNA. In vivo gene silencing of PI3K and Erk1/2 in the nodose ganglia prevented ghrelin inhibition of leptin- or CCK-8-evoked vagal firing. Feeding experiments showed that silencing Kir6.2 in the vagal ganglia abolished the orexigenic actions of ghrelin. These data indicate that ghrelin modulates vagal ganglia neuron excitability by activating KATP conductance via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtype 1a-Gαi -PI3K-Erk1/2-KATP pathway. The resulting hyperpolarization renders the neurons less responsive to signals evoked by anorexigenic hormones. This provides a mechanism to explain the actions of ghrelin with respect to overcoming anorexigenic signals that act via the vagal afferent pathways.

PMID:
26174421
PMCID:
PMC4575581
DOI:
10.1113/JP270788
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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