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Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 May;273(5):1179-84. doi: 10.1007/s00405-015-3718-2. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Development of the Arabic version of the "Sniffin' Sticks" odor identification test.

Author information

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Interdisciplinary Center "Smell & Taste", TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.
2
Institute of Psychology, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.
3
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Students' Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
4
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
5
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Interdisciplinary Center "Smell & Taste", TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany. thummel@mail.zih.tu-dresden.de.

Abstract

Sniffin' Sticks Test (SST) is a comprehensive tool for medical or scientific diagnosis of olfactory sensitivity. Although it is widely used around the world, it is recommended to develop a cultural adaptation of any odor identification test prior to using it in a particular cultural space. The aim of the present work is to adapt SST to Arabic population, running experiments in Egypt. Prospective controlled study. We included 382 people (174 women and 208 men) aged 8-74 years; 323 healthy subjects and 59 patients. The use of original list of odors revealed that four of the descriptors were poorly recognized (<75 %) in Egypt. Accompanied by several control measurements descriptors and targets were replaced with more familiar names. The result of the present study is a modified version of the original SST, adapted to the Arabian space with a high test-re-test reliability. In addition, first tentative normative data are presented for the Arabic population. The 10th percentile for the whole group of healthy subjects equaled 13, whereas in 16-35 age category it equaled 14. The revised SST test can be used in studies on olfactory sensitivity in Arabic populations.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

2b.

KEYWORDS:

Arabia; Cross-cultural; Descriptors; Nose; Odor identification; Smell

PMID:
26173896
DOI:
10.1007/s00405-015-3718-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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