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BMJ Open. 2015 Jul 14;5(7):e008254. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008254.

Barriers to uptake among high-risk individuals declining participation in lung cancer screening: a mixed methods analysis of the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) trial.

Author information

1
Cochrane Institute of Primary Care and Public Health, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.
2
Cochrane Institute of Primary Care and Public Health, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, The University of Liverpool Cancer Research Centre, Liverpool, UK.
3
Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, The University of Liverpool Cancer Research Centre, Liverpool, UK.
4
Respiratory Medicine Unit, David Evans Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK.
5
Centre for Population Health Sciences, Medical School, Edinburgh, UK.
6
Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London UK.
7
Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The current study aimed to identify the barriers to participation among high-risk individuals in the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) pilot trial.

SETTING:

The UKLS pilot trial is a randomised controlled trial of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening that has recruited high-risk people using a population approach in the Cambridge and Liverpool areas.

PARTICIPANTS:

High-risk individuals aged 50-75 years were invited to participate in UKLS. Individuals were excluded if a LDCT scan was performed within the last year, if they were unable to provide consent, or if LDCT screening was unable to be carried out due to coexisting comorbidities.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Statistical associations between individual characteristics and UKLS uptake were examined using multivariable regression modelling. In those who completed a non-participation questionnaire (NPQ), thematic analysis of free-text data was undertaken to identify reasons for not taking part, with subsequent exploratory linkage of key themes to risk factors for non-uptake.

RESULTS:

Comparative data were available from 4061 high-risk individuals who consented to participate in the trial and 2756 who declined participation. Of those declining participation, 748 (27.1%) completed a NPQ. Factors associated with non-uptake included: female gender (OR=0.64, p<0.001), older age (OR=0.73, p<0.001), current smoking (OR=0.70, p<0.001), lower socioeconomic group (OR=0.56, p<0.001) and higher affective risk perception (OR=0.52, p<0.001). Among non-participants who provided a reason, two main themes emerged reflecting practical and emotional barriers. Smokers were more likely to report emotional barriers to participation.

CONCLUSIONS:

A profile of risk factors for non-participation in lung screening has emerged, with underlying reasons largely relating to practical and emotional barriers. Strategies for engaging high-risk, hard-to-reach groups are critical for the equitable uptake of a potential future lung cancer screening programme.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:

The UKLS trial was registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register under the reference 78513845.

KEYWORDS:

Barriers; High-risk; Lung cancer; Screening; UKLS

PMID:
26173719
PMCID:
PMC4513485
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008254
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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