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Traffic. 2015 Oct;16(10):1039-61. doi: 10.1111/tra.12310. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Mechanisms Regulating Protein Localization.

Bauer NC1,2,3, Doetsch PW1,4,5,6, Corbett AH1,4.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
2
Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Cell, and Developmental Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
3
Current address: Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
4
Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
5
Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
6
Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Abstract

Cellular functions are dictated by protein content and activity. There are numerous strategies to regulate proteins varying from modulating gene expression to post-translational modifications. One commonly used mode of regulation in eukaryotes is targeted localization. By specifically redirecting the localization of a pool of existing protein, cells can achieve rapid changes in local protein function. Eukaryotic cells have evolved elegant targeting pathways to direct proteins to the appropriate cellular location or locations. Here, we provide a general overview of these localization pathways, with a focus on nuclear and mitochondrial transport, and present a survey of the evolutionarily conserved regulatory strategies identified thus far. We end with a description of several specific examples of proteins that exploit localization as an important mode of regulation.

KEYWORDS:

localization; nuclear import; nuclear pore; regulation

PMID:
26172624
DOI:
10.1111/tra.12310
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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