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Neuroimage. 2015 Oct 15;120:371-81. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.07.013. Epub 2015 Jul 11.

Double-pulsed diffusional kurtosis imaging for the in vivo assessment of human brain microstructure.

Author information

1
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: edward.s.hui@gmail.com.
2
Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Center for Biomedical Imaging, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Abstract

We have recently extended conventional single-pulsed-field-gradient (s-PFG) diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) diffusion MRI sequences, with a method known as double-pulsed DKI (DP-DKI). By virtue of a six-dimensional (6D) formulation for q-space, many of the results and insights of s-PFG DKI are generalized to those of DP-DKI. Owing to the fact that DP-DKI isolates the second order contributions to the d-PFG signal (i.e. second order in b-value), the 6D diffusional kurtosis encodes information beyond what is available from s-PFG sequences. Previously, we have demonstrated DP-DKI for in vivo mouse brain at 7 T, and it is the objective of this study to demonstrate the feasibility of DP-DKI at 3 T for the in vivo assessment of human brain microstructure. In addition, an example is given of how to utilize the additional information obtained from DP-DKI for the purpose of biophysical modeling. The relationship between a specific microscopic anisotropy metric estimated from DP-DKI and other recently proposed measures is also discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Double-pulsed-field-gradient; Human; Kurtosis; Microscopic anisotropy; Multiple-wave-vector; Non-Gaussian diffusion

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