Format

Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS Biol. 2015 Jul 14;13(7):e1002210. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002210. eCollection 2015 Jul.

The Discovery, Distribution, and Evolution of Viruses Associated with Drosophila melanogaster.

Author information

1
Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Centre for Immunity Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
2
Institute of Immunity and Infection Research, and the Centre for Immunity Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
3
Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
4
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.
5
Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Abstract

Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable invertebrate model for viral infection and antiviral immunity, and is a focus for studies of insect-virus coevolution. Here we use a metagenomic approach to identify more than 20 previously undetected RNA viruses and a DNA virus associated with wild D. melanogaster. These viruses not only include distant relatives of known insect pathogens but also novel groups of insect-infecting viruses. By sequencing virus-derived small RNAs, we show that the viruses represent active infections of Drosophila. We find that the RNA viruses differ in the number and properties of their small RNAs, and we detect both siRNAs and a novel miRNA from the DNA virus. Analysis of small RNAs also allows us to identify putative viral sequences that lack detectable sequence similarity to known viruses. By surveying >2,000 individually collected wild adult Drosophila we show that more than 30% of D. melanogaster carry a detectable virus, and more than 6% carry multiple viruses. However, despite a high prevalence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont--which is known to be protective against virus infections in Drosophila--we were unable to detect any relationship between the presence of Wolbachia and the presence of any virus. Using publicly available RNA-seq datasets, we show that the community of viruses in Drosophila laboratories is very different from that seen in the wild, but that some of the newly discovered viruses are nevertheless widespread in laboratory lines and are ubiquitous in cell culture. By sequencing viruses from individual wild-collected flies we show that some viruses are shared between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Our results provide an essential evolutionary and ecological context for host-virus interaction in Drosophila, and the newly reported viral sequences will help develop D. melanogaster further as a model for molecular and evolutionary virus research.

PMID:
26172158
PMCID:
PMC4501690
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pbio.1002210
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances, Secondary source IDs, Grant support

Publication type

MeSH terms

Substances

Secondary source IDs

Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center