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Oman Med J. 2015 May;30(3):193-202. doi: 10.5001/omj.2015.41.

Validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Indian University Students.

Author information

1
Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.
2
Independent Researcher, Toronto, Canada.
3
Center for Healthful Behavior Change, New York University Medical Center, New York, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Despite the demonstrated utility of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in various demographic groups, it has never been validated in a sample of Indian subjects. To extend and confirm the PSQI's applicability for South Asian subjects, this preliminary study aimed to assess its psychometric and diagnostic validity in a sample of university students.

METHODS:

Forty-seven male students were recruited from Jamia Millia Islamia, a public central university in New Delhi, India. The mean age of the students was 23.4±3.9 years, and they had a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.3±3.3kg/m(2). The PSQI was administered to all subjects and overnight polysomnographic testing was carried out as a concurrent validation measure.

RESULTS:

Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire was found to be 0.736. Internal homogeneity was high, with the majority of correlations between questionnaire component scores and the summed global score being significant (p<0.010). Criterion validity-correlations between the PSQI global score and polysomnography (PSG) measures were low. However, the questionnaire component scores and the related polysomnographic measures did show some significant relationships. The optimal cut-off scores for distinguishing students with/without sleep problems was >6 and was generated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios at the cut-off score were 0.838 (p<0.0001), 75.0%, 88.9%, 6.75, and 0.280, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

The study found evidence that the PSQI had internal consistency, internal homogeneity, and diagnostic characteristics that compared well with PSG among a sample of young adult male students in India. This supports the applicability and certain aspects of the validity of the PSQI in the population.

KEYWORDS:

Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Polysomnography; Sensitivity; Sleep disorders, Validity

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