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J Hepatol. 2015 Nov;63(5):1263-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.07.002. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

A focus on the role of platelets in liver regeneration: Do platelet-endothelial cell interactions initiate the regenerative process?

Author information

1
Division of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14, Switzerland; Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève, Switzerland. Electronic address: jeremy.meyer@hcuge.ch.
2
Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève, Switzerland.
3
Division of Angiology and Haemostasis, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14, Switzerland; Geneva Platelet Group, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève, Switzerland.
4
Division of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14, Switzerland; Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève, Switzerland.

Abstract

Platelets are involved in the early phases of liver regeneration. Moreover, platelet transfusion and thrombocytosis were recently shown to enhance hepatocyte proliferation. However, the precise mechanisms remain elusive. This review discusses the latest updates regarding the mechanisms by which platelets stimulate liver regeneration, focusing on their interactions with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and on their fate within the liver. Following liver injury, platelets are recruited to and trapped within the liver, where they adhere to the endothelium. Subsequent platelet activation results in the release of platelet granules, which stimulate hepatocyte proliferation through activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 signalling pathways. Platelets activate liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, leading to the secretion of growth factors, such as interleukin-6. Finally, liver sinusoidal cells and hepatocytes can also internalize platelets, but the effects of this alternate process on liver regeneration remain to be explored. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which platelets stimulate liver regeneration could lead to improvement in post-operative organ function and allow hepatectomies of a greater extent to be performed.

KEYWORDS:

Akt; ERK1/2; Endothelium; Hepatocyte; Interleukin-6; Internalization; Lipopolysaccharide; Liver sinusoidal endothelial cell; Macrophage-1 antigen; Proliferation; Signaling pathway; β2-integrin

PMID:
26169159
DOI:
10.1016/j.jhep.2015.07.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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