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Psychiatry Res. 2015 Aug 30;228(3):671-9. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.048. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

Changes in verbal learning and memory in schizophrenia and non-psychotic controls in midlife: A nine-year follow-up in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort study 1966.

Author information

1
Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 5000, FIN-90014, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, University Hospital and University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014, Finland. Electronic address: irina@rannikko.org.
2
Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, OYS, P.O. Box 26, FIN-90029, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, OYS, P.O. Box 50, FIN-90029, Finland. Electronic address: marianne.haapea@oulu.fi.
3
Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 5000, FIN-90014, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, OYS, P.O. Box 26, FIN-90029, Finland; Centre for Life Course Epidemiology and Systems Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-900014, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, University Hospital and University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014, Finland. Electronic address: jouko.miettunen@oulu.fi.
4
Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 5000, FIN-90014, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, OYS, P.O. Box 26, FIN-90029, Finland. Electronic address: juha.veijola@oulu.fi.
5
University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry, Box 189 Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom; University of Cambridge, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Herchel Smith Building, Forvie Site, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK. Electronic address: gm285@cam.ac.uk.
6
University of Cambridge, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Herchel Smith Building, Forvie Site, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK. Electronic address: jhb32@cam.ac.uk.
7
Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 5000, FIN-90014, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, OYS, P.O. Box 26, FIN-90029, Finland. Electronic address: anja.husa@student.oulu.fi.
8
University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry, Box 189 Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: pbj21@cam.ac.uk.
9
Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 5000, FIN-90014, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, OYS, P.O. Box 26, FIN-90029, Finland. Electronic address: matti.isohanni@oulu.fi.
10
Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 5000, FIN-90014, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, OYS, P.O. Box 26, FIN-90029, Finland; Centre for Life Course Epidemiology and Systems Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-900014, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, University Hospital and University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014, Finland. Electronic address: erika.jaaskelainen@oulu.fi.

Abstract

Findings on longitudinal change of cognitive performance in schizophrenia are extremely variable in the case of verbal learning and memory, and it is still unclear which dimensions of verbal learning and memory exhibit possible deterioration over the long-term. Our aim was to compare the change in verbal learning and memory in individuals with schizophrenia 10-20 years after the illness onset and healthy controls during a nine-year follow-up in a general population sample. Our sample included 41 schizophrenia spectrum subjects and 73 controls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort study 1966. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was used to estimate the degree of change in verbal learning and memory during a nine-year follow-up from age 34-years to 43- years. Both cases and controls deteriorated. There was statistically significant decline in two out of 20 CVLT items among cases and in 13 out of 20 CVLT items among controls. With the exception of two variables, the decline in verbal learning and memory over nine years was not significantly larger in cases. We conclude that during midlife verbal learning and memory in schizophrenia mostly declines in a normative fashion with aging at the same rate as the general population.

KEYWORDS:

California Verbal Learning Test; Cognition; Follow-up; Population-based birth cohort study; Schizophrenia

PMID:
26168931
DOI:
10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.048
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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