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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:783761. doi: 10.1155/2015/783761. Epub 2015 Jun 18.

Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Salivary IgA, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Young Soccer Players.

Author information

1
Sports Medicine Association of Serbia, Lazarevacki Drum 14, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
2
Institute for Bromatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
3
Institute of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
4
Institute of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
5
Snezana Pejic, Department of Molecular Biology and Endocrinology, "Vinca" Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

Abstract

The physiologic stress induced by physical activity is reflected in immune system perturbations, oxidative stress, muscle injury, and inflammation. We investigated the effect of astaxanthin (Asx) supplementation on salivary IgA (sIgA) and oxidative stress status in plasma, along with changes in biochemical parameters and total/differential white cell counts. Forty trained male soccer players were randomly assigned to Asx and placebo groups. Asx group was supplemented with 4 mg of Asx. Saliva and blood samples were collected at the baseline and after 90 days of supplementation in preexercise conditions. We observed a rise of sIgA levels at rest after 90 days of Asx supplementation, which was accompanied with a decrease in prooxidant-antioxidant balance. The plasma muscle enzymes levels were reduced significantly by Asx supplementation and by regular training. The increase in neutrophil count and hs-CRP level was found only in placebo group, indicating a significant blunting of the systemic inflammatory response in the subjects taking Asx. This study indicates that Asx supplementation improves sIgA response and attenuates muscle damage, thus preventing inflammation induced by rigorous physical training. Our findings also point that Asx could show significant physiologic modulation in individuals with mucosal immunity impairment or under conditions of increased oxidative stress and inflammation.

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