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J Midlife Health. 2015 Apr-Jun;6(2):53-8. doi: 10.4103/0976-7800.158942.

Comparative study between pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid (via) in screening of CIN and early cervical cancer.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India.



Cervical cancer is the second most common among women globally. In most cases of Assam, Ca Cervix is detected late due to lack of effective screening programme.


To screen the patient at Gynaecology OPD at the age 18-60 yrs by doing pap smear, VIA (Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid) and to detect sensitivity and specificity for detecting CIN and early Ca Cervix.


It is a cross sectional study of 300 women (18- 60 yrs) who fulfill selection criteria. The pap smear and VIA are done in these cases. In positive cases, cervical biopsy and histopathological studies are done, The sensitivity and specificity of each test are determined and compared.


The positive result detected from cytology are 22, VIA was positive in 52 cases. The histology of 19 cases are suggestive of CIN and Ca Cervix.


The findings were compared with other studies and evaluated.


The most common finding in per speculum examination is cervical erosion. The sensitivity of VIA is 89% (versus pap smear-52%) the specificity of VIA is 87% (versus pap smear-95%). The accuracy VIA is 87% compared to pap smear-93%.


The lack of effective and implementable screening programme lead to reporting of advanced cases of Ca Cervix. If detected at CIN or early Ca cervix stage, effective treatment can be provided with encouraging results. Therefore effective & implementable Ca Cervix screening need to be provided in our country.


Ca Cervix; Pap Smear; VIA

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