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Comput Biol Med. 2015 Sep;64:127-37. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2015.06.021. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

A wrapper-based approach for feature selection and classification of major depressive disorder-bipolar disorders.

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Uskudar University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Department of Computer Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:
NPIstanbul Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey; Uskudar University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Istanbul, Turkey.
Uskudar University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Istanbul, Turkey.


Feature selection (FS) and classification are consecutive artificial intelligence (AI) methods used in data analysis, pattern classification, data mining and medical informatics. Beside promising studies in the application of AI methods to health informatics, working with more informative features is crucial in order to contribute to early diagnosis. Being one of the prevalent psychiatric disorders, depressive episodes of bipolar disorder (BD) is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD), leading to suboptimal therapy and poor outcomes. Therefore discriminating MDD and BD at earlier stages of illness could help to facilitate efficient and specific treatment. In this study, a nature inspired and novel FS algorithm based on standard Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), called improved ACO (IACO), was used to reduce the number of features by removing irrelevant and redundant data. The selected features were then fed into support vector machine (SVM), a powerful mathematical tool for data classification, regression, function estimation and modeling processes, in order to classify MDD and BD subjects. Proposed method used coherence, a promising quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) biomarker, values calculated from alpha, theta and delta frequency bands. The noteworthy performance of novel IACO-SVM approach stated that it is possible to discriminate 46 BD and 55 MDD subjects using 22 of 48 features with 80.19% overall classification accuracy. The performance of IACO algorithm was also compared to the performance of standard ACO, genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms in terms of their classification accuracy and number of selected features. In order to provide an almost unbiased estimate of classification error, the validation process was performed using nested cross-validation (CV) procedure.


Artificial intelligence; Bipolar disorder; Coherence; Improved Ant Colony Optimization; Major depressive disorder; Support vector machine

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