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J Craniofac Surg. 2015 Jul;26(5):1548-50. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000001846.

Basal View Reference Photographs for Nasolabial Appearance Rating in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

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*The Department of Plastic Surgery, New York University Langone Medical Center †Department of Preventive Medicine and Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook, NY.


The Asher-McDade system is a 5-point ordinal scale frequently used to rate the components of nasolabial appearance, including nasal form and nasal symmetry, in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Although reference photographs illustrating this scale have been identified for the frontal and right profile view, no reference photographs exist for the basal view. The aim of this study was to identify reference photographs for nasal form and nasal symmetry from the basal view to illustrate this scale and facilitate its use. Four raters assessed nasolabial appearance (form and symmetry) on basal view photographs of 50 children (average age 8 years) with a repaired cleft lip. Intraclass correlation coefficients show fair to moderate inter-rater reliability. Cronbach α indicated strong agreement between raters (0.77 nasal form; 0.78 nasal symmetry; 0.80 overall), along with low duplicate measurement error and strong internal consistency between the measures. The photographs with the highest agreement among raters were selected to illustrate each point on the 5-point scale for nasal form and for nasal symmetry, resulting in the selection of 10 reference photographs. The basal view reference photograph set developed from this study may complement existing reference photograph sets for other views and facilitate rating tasks.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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