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Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015 Oct;218(7):603-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.06.004. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

The effects of phthalate and nonylphenol exposure on body size and secondary sexual characteristics during puberty.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan.
2
School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Department of Pediatric, Taipei City Hospital, Taiwan.
5
National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
6
Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
7
Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
8
Division of Health Policy Translation, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
9
Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan.
10
Department of Family Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan.
11
Division of Preventive Medicine and Health Services Research, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
12
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
13
Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Family Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Center of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
14
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substance, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
15
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
16
Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address: mlchen@ym.edu.tw.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan.

METHODS:

This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals.

RESULTS:

We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20 μg/kgbw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50 μg/kgbw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI.

CONCLUSIONS:

The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.

KEYWORDS:

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals; Nonylphenol; Obesity; Phthalic acid esters; Pubertal maturity

PMID:
26163779
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.06.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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