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Sleep Med Rev. 2016 Feb;25:31-9. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.01.004. Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Sleep in pediatric primary care: A review of the literature.

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Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 705 Riley Hospital Drive, ROC 4270, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, G311, Denver, CO 80206, USA. Electronic address:


Primary care is a critical setting for screening and management of pediatric sleep difficulties. This review summarizes studies examining the prevalence of sleep problems in primary care settings as well as current practices in screening, diagnosis, and management, including behavioral recommendations and medications. Potential barriers to effectively addressing sleep are also reviewed. Despite the high prevalence of pediatric sleep problems in primary care, rates of screening and management are low. Primary care providers receive minimal sleep training and have resulting gaps in knowledge and confidence. Parents similarly have gaps in knowledge and many factors contribute to their identification of sleep as problematic. Recommendations to improve the provision of sleep services in pediatric primary care are made in the areas of research, practice, and education.


Adolescent; Child; Diagnosis; Insomnia; Management; Obstructive sleep apnea; Pediatric; Primary care; Screening; Sleep

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