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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Aug 5;7(30):16257-65. doi: 10.1021/acsami.5b05194. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

NaGdF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+)@NaGdF4:Nd(3+)@Sodium-Gluconate: Multifunctional and Biocompatible Ultrasmall Core-Shell Nanohybrids for UCL/MR/CT Multimodal Imaging.

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†Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.
‡Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, College of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.
§Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.


Multimodal bioimaging nanoparticles by integrating diverse imaging ingredients into one system, represent a class of emerging advanced materials that provide more comprehensive and accurate clinical diagnostics than conventional contrast agents. Here monodisperse and biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles, NaGdF4: Yb(3+)/Er(3+)@NaGdF4:Nd@sodium-gluconate (termed as GNa-Er@Nd), with about 26 nm in diameter were successfully prepared by a facile two step reactions in high boiling solvents, and followed a ligand exchange process with sodium gluconate. The resulting GNa-Er@Nd nanoparticles were well characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and zeta potentials. These nanohybrids present brightly dual-wavelength excited upconversion luminescence (UCL) under both 980 and 793 nm laser because of the synergistic effect of Yb(3+)/Er(3+) and Nd(3+). They also exhibited excellent relaxivity parameters (r1) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Hounsfield units (HU) in X-ray computed tomography (CT) that are comparable to the clinical contrast agents. Therefore, these small and monodisperse nanoparticles provide options to construct a unique platform for potential multimodal UCL/CT/MRI imaging simultaneously.


biocompatibility; core−shell; multimodal imaging; sodium-gluconate; upconversion nanoparticles

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