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Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Sep;25(9):795-815. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2015.05.005. Epub 2015 May 16.

Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response: An International Scientific Consensus Summit from the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC).

Author information

1
Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: livia.augustin@utoronto.ca.
2
Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Department of Nutritional Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
3
Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Department of Nutritional Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
4
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA.
5
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
Glycemic Index Foundation, Sydney, Australia.
7
Food for Health Science Centre, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
8
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
9
Department of Food Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
10
Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
11
Institut d' Investigación Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabolicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Barcelona, Spain.
12
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
13
Independent Nutrition Logic, Wymondham, UK.
14
Department of Epidemiology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, USA.
15
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
16
Institute Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), University Pierre et Marie Curie, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France; National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), University Pierre et Marie Curie and Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France.
17
Department of Nutritional Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
18
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.
19
Oldways, Boston, USA.
20
Nutrition Foundation of Italy, Milan, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

The positive and negative health effects of dietary carbohydrates are of interest to both researchers and consumers.

METHODS:

International experts on carbohydrate research held a scientific summit in Stresa, Italy, in June 2013 to discuss controversies surrounding the utility of the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response (GR).

RESULTS:

The outcome was a scientific consensus statement which recognized the importance of postprandial glycemia in overall health, and the GI as a valid and reproducible method of classifying carbohydrate foods for this purpose. There was consensus that diets low in GI and GL were relevant to the prevention and management of diabetes and coronary heart disease, and probably obesity. Moderate to weak associations were observed for selected cancers. The group affirmed that diets low in GI and GL should always be considered in the context of diets otherwise understood as healthy, complementing additional ways of characterizing carbohydrate foods, such as fiber and whole grain content. Diets of low GI and GL were considered particularly important in individuals with insulin resistance.

CONCLUSIONS:

Given the high prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes worldwide and the consistency of the scientific evidence reviewed, the expert panel confirmed an urgent need to communicate information on GI and GL to the general public and health professionals, through channels such as national dietary guidelines, food composition tables and food labels.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer; Diabetes; Glycemic index; Glycemic load; Heart disease

PMID:
26160327
DOI:
10.1016/j.numecd.2015.05.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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