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Acta Biomater. 2015 Oct;25:143-9. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.07.007. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood.

Author information

1
McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3025 East Carson Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
2
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
3
McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3025 East Carson Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: federspielwj@upmc.edu.

Abstract

The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (<500 mL/min) ECCO2R devices necessitates more efficient gas exchange devices. Since over 90% of blood CO2 is transported as bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), we previously reported development of a carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal from blood in model gas exchange devices by converting bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. This present study tested the hypothesis that dilute sulfur dioxide (SO2) in oxygen sweep gas could further increase CO2 removal by creating an acidic microenvironment within the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the HFM surface, facilitating dehydration of bicarbonate to CO2. CA was covalently immobilized onto poly (methyl pentene) (PMP) HFMs through glutaraldehyde activated chitosan spacers, potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0151 m(2)) and tested for CO2 removal rate with oxygen (O2) sweep gas and a 2.2% SO2 in oxygen sweep gas mixture. Using pure O2 sweep gas, CA-PMP increased CO2 removal by 31% (258 mL/min/m(2)) compared to PMP (197 mL/min/m(2)) (P<0.05). Using 2.2% SO2 acidic sweep gas increased PMP CO2 removal by 17% (230 mL/min/m(2)) compared to pure oxygen sweep gas control (P<0.05); device outlet blood pH was 7.38 units. When employing both CA-PMP and 2.2% SO2 sweep gas, CO2 removal increased by 109% (411 mL/min/m(2)) (P<0.05); device outlet blood pH was 7.35 units. Dilute acidic sweep gas increases CO2 removal, and when used in combination with bioactive CA-HFMs has a synergistic effect to more than double CO2 removal while maintaining physiologic pH. Through these technologies the next generation of intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices can remove more CO2 with smaller blood contacting surface areas.

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:

A clinical need exists for more efficient respiratory assist devices which utilize low blood flow rates (<500 mL/min) to regulate blood CO2 in patients suffering from acute lung failure. Literature has demonstrated approaches to chemically increase hollow fiber membrane (HFM) CO2 removal efficiency by shifting equilibrium from bicarbonate to gaseous CO2, through either a bioactive carbonic anhydrase enzyme coating or bulk blood acidification with lactic acid. In this study we demonstrate a novel approach to local blood acidification using an acidified sweep gas in combination with a bioactive coating to more than double CO2 removal efficiency of HFM devices. To our knowledge, this is the first report assessing an acidic sweep gas to increase CO2 removal from blood using HFM devices.

KEYWORDS:

CO(2) removal; Carbonic anhydrase; ECCO(2)R; Enzyme immobilization; Hollow fiber membrane; Respiratory dialysis

PMID:
26159104
PMCID:
PMC4562859
DOI:
10.1016/j.actbio.2015.07.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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