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PLoS One. 2015 Jul 9;10(7):e0131945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131945. eCollection 2015.

Minimal Inter-Fractional Fiducial Migration during Image-Guided Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using SuperLock Nitinol Coil Fiducial Markers.

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Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA, 95817, United States of America.
Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, 43210, United States of America.



Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being increasingly used for the treatment of patients with lung cancer or lung metastasis who are medically unfit to undergo resection. In order to improve accuracy and confidence in targeting tumors, many centers rely on fiducial implantation. We evaluated the migration of a novel fiducial marker specifically designed for lung tissue implanted via electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB).


We retrospectively quantified the individual and group migrations of SuperLock nitinol coil fiducials for 15 patients receiving lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), in order to evaluate the reliability of using these fiducials as a target surrogate for cases where tumors cannot be clearly delineated on cone beam CTs (CBCTs). For each fraction, we compared the individual and group migrations of the fiducials between the planning CT and the acquired CBCT. The group migration was defined as the distance between the centroids of the fiducial group and GTV.


A total of 16 lung targets were included in our study for these 15 patients (one patient with two targets). Of 55 fiducials placed, we observed a 100% retention rate. The mean individual migration was 1.87 mm (range, 0.63-5.25 mm) with a standard deviation of 1.26 mm. The mean group migration was 1.94 mm (range, 0.03-6.19 mm) with a standard deviation of 1.45 mm. Overall, there was minimal change in the relative locations of the markers with respect to each other, as well as to the target.


We found that the SuperLock nitinol coil fiducial marker positions are stable throughout the radiation treatment, and can be used as a reliable surrogate to target, and to avoid geometric misses during gated treatments.

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