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Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2015 Jul 9;6:e99. doi: 10.1038/ctg.2015.24.

C. difficile Infection: Changing Epidemiology and Management Paradigms.

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Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.


The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been rising in hospitals, long-term care facilities, and within the community. Cases have been more severe with more complications, deaths, and higher healthcare-associated costs. With the emergence of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile and the increasing prevalence of community-acquired CDI among healthy patients without traditional risk factors, the epidemiology of C. difficile has been evolving. This changing epidemiology requires a change in management. Taking into account new risk factors for CDI and growing subpopulations of affected individuals, diagnostic, treatment, and prevention approaches need to be adjusted.

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