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Neurophotonics. 2015 Jul;2(3):031205. doi: 10.1117/1.NPh.2.3.031205. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Optrodes for combined optogenetics and electrophysiology in live animals.

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Toronto Western Research Institute , Fundamental Neurobiology, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto M5T 2S8, Canada ; University of Toronto , Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, 164 College Street, Toronto M5S 3G9, Canada.
Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Québec , 2601 chemin de la Canardière, Québec G1J 2G3, Canada ; Université Laval , Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 1050 Avenue de la médecine, Québec G1V0A6, Canada ; Université Laval , Centre d'Optique, Photonique et Laser, 2375 rue de la Terrasse, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada.


Optical tissue properties limit visible light depth penetration in tissue. Because of this, the recent development of optogenetic tools was quickly followed by the development of light delivery devices for in vivo optogenetics applications. We summarize the efforts made in the last decade to design neural probes that combine conventional electrophysiological recordings and optical channel(s) for optogenetic activation, often referred to as optodes or optrodes. Several aspects including challenges for light delivery in living brain tissue, the combination of light delivery with electrophysiological recordings, probe designs, multimodality, wireless implantable system, and practical considerations guiding the choice of configuration depending on the questions one seeks to address are presented.


fiber optics; genetically-encoded sensors; light-tissue interactions; neuroscience; opsins

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