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Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug;102(2):420-32. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.106096. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Vitamin and carotenoid intake and risk of head-neck cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, GROW-School for Oncology & Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands; and.
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, GROW-School for Oncology & Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands.
3
Department of Epidemiology, GROW-School for Oncology & Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands; and lj.schouten@maastrichtuniversity.nl.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most-common type of cancer worldwide. Evidence regarding the potential protective effect of vitamins and carotenoids on HNC is limited and mostly based on case-control studies.

OBJECTIVE:

We evaluated the association of intake of dietary vitamins C and E (including supplementation) and the most-common carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin) and risk of HNC and HNC subtypes in a large prospective study.

DESIGN:

The Netherlands Cohort Study included 120,852 participants. For efficiency reasons, a case-cohort design was used. At baseline in 1986, participants completed a food-frequency questionnaire. A subcohort was randomly selected from the total cohort. After 20.3 y of follow-up, 3898 subcohort members and 415 HNC cases [131 oral cavity cancer (OCCs), 88 oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPs), and 193 laryngeal cancer cases] were available for analysis. Rate ratios and 95% CIs for highest (quartile 4) compared with lowest (quartile 1) quartiles of vitamin and carotenoid intake were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS:

A strong inverse association was shown between vitamin C and HNC overall (multivariable-adjusted rate ratio for quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.66; P-trend < 0.001), OCC (multivariable-adjusted rate ratio for quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.77; P-trend < 0.05), and OHPC (multivariable-adjusted rate ratio for quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.67; P-trend < 0.01). No statistically significant results were shown for vitamin E, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin. The association of vitamin E and HNC was modified by alcohol status (P-interaction = 0.003) with lower risks in alcohol abstainers.

CONCLUSIONS:

With this study, we show an inverse association between intake of vitamin C and the incidence of HNC and HNC-subtypes. Future research is recommended to investigate the underlying mechanisms and to confirm our results, which may be promising for the prevention of HNC.

KEYWORDS:

carotenoid intake; head-neck cancer; prospective cohort study; risk factors; vitamins

PMID:
26156734
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.114.106096
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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