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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Jan;155(Pt B):239-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.06.013. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Incidence rate of type 2 diabetes is >50% lower in GrassrootsHealth cohort with median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 41 ng/ml than in NHANES cohort with median of 22 ng/ml.

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GrassrootsHealth, Encinitas, CA, USA. Electronic address:
GrassrootsHealth, Encinitas, CA, USA.
Creighton University, Omaha, NE, USA.
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.


Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This study compared incidence rates of type 2 diabetes among participants aged ≥20 years in two U.S. cohorts with markedly different median 25(OH)D concentrations. The median 25(OH)D concentration in the GrassrootsHealth (GRH) cohort was 41 ng/ml (N=4933) while in the 2005-6 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) it was 22 ng/ml (N=4078) (P<0.0001). The adjusted annual incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 3.7 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=1.9, 6.6) in the GRH cohort, compared to 9.3 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=6.7, 12.6) in NHANES. In the NHANES cohort, the lowest 25(OH)D tertiles (<17, 17-24 ng/ml) had higher odds of developing diabetes than the highest tertile (OR: 4.9, P=0.02 and 4.8, P=0.01 respectively), adjusting for covariates. Differences in demographics and methods may have limited comparability. Raising serum 25(OH)D may be a useful tool for reducing risk of diabetes in the population.


Serum 25–hydroxyvitamin D; Type 2 diabetes; Vitamin D

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