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Electromagn Biol Med. 2016;35(2):186-202. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2015.1043557. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation.

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a Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , Kyiv , Ukraine.
b Department of Biophysics , Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University , Bila Tserkva , Ukraine.
c School of Public and Environmental Affairs , Indiana University Bloomington , Bloomington , IN , USA.
d A.I. Virtanen Institute, University of Eastern Finland , Kuopio , Finland.
e Department of Structural and Functional Biology , University of Campinas , Campinas , Brazil.


This review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells. Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems. A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of low-intensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation.


Cellular signaling; cancer; free radicals; oxidative stress; radiofrequency radiation; reactive oxygen species

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