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J Hazard Mater. 2015 Nov 15;298:351-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.06.021. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

Occupational exposure to nanoparticles at commercial photocopy centers.

Author information

1
Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, USA.
2
Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, USA; Department of Environmental Health, Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: Dhimiter_Bello@uml.edu.
3
R J Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA, USA.
4
Wisconsin State of Hygiene Laboratory, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI, USA.
5
Department of Environmental Health, Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

Photocopiers emit high levels of nanoparticles (PM0.1). To-date little is known of physicochemical composition of PM0.1 in real workplace settings. Here we perform a comprehensive physicochemical and morphological characterization of PM0.1 and raw materials (toners and paper) at eight commercial photocopy centers that use color and monochrome photocopiers over the course of a full week. We document high PM0.1 exposures with complex composition and several ENM in toners and PM0.1. Daily geometric mean PM0.1 concentrations ranged from 3700 to 34000 particles/cubic-centimeter (particles/cm(3)) (GSD 1.4-3.3), up to 12 times greater than background, with transient peaks >1.4 million particles/cm(3). PM0.1 contained 6-63% organic carbon, <1% elemental carbon, and 2-8% metals, including iron, zinc, titania, chromium, nickel and manganese, typically in the <0.01-1% range, and in agreement with toner composition. These findings document widespread ENM in toner formulations and high nanoparticle exposures are an industry-wide phenomenon. It further calls attention to the need to substantially redesign the interface of this technology with workers and consumers.

KEYWORDS:

Copy center; Engineered nanoparticles; NanoEHS; Titanium dioxide; Toner

PMID:
26148960
DOI:
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.06.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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